Partially Edentulous Arch(es)
The American Dental Association developed these dental practice parameters for voluntary use by practicing dentists. The parameters are intended, foremost, as an aid to clinical decision making and thus, they describe clinical considerations in the diagnosis and treatment of oral health conditions. Evaluation in the context of these parameters includes diagnosis.
Additionally, parameters will assist the dental profession by providing the basis on which the profession’s commitment to high-quality care can be demonstrated and can continue to be improved.
The dental practice parameters are condition-based, presenting an array of possible diagnostic and treatment considerations for oral health conditions. Condition-based parameters, rather than procedure-based parameters, were determined to be the most useful because this approach recognizes the need for integrated treatments of oral conditions rather than emphasizing isolated treatment procedures. The parameters are also oriented toward the process of care and describe elements of diagnosis and treatment.
While the parameters describe the common elements of diagnosis and treatment, it is acknowledged that unique clinical circumstances, and individual patient preferences, must be factored into clinical decisions. This requires the dentist’s careful professional judgment. Balancing individual patient needs with scientific soundness is a necessary step in providing care.
It is understood that treatment provided by the dentist may deviate from the parameters, in individual cases, depending on the clinical circumstances presented by the patient. This should be documented and explained to the patient.
The elements of care that are described in the parameters were derived from a consensus of professional opinion. This consensus included expert opinion on the topic and the clinical experience of practicing dentists. In addition, the research literature, and parameters and guidelines of other dental organizations were reviewed.
The American Dental Association recognizes that other interested parties, such as payers, courts, legislators and regulators may also opt to use these parameters. The Association encourages users to become familiar with these parameters as the profession’s statement on the scope of clinical oral health care.
However, these parameters are not designed to address considerations outside of the clinical arena and, therefore, may not be directly applicable to all health policy issues.
Furthermore, these parameters are intended to describe the range of acceptable treatment modalities. They are intended as educational resources, not legal requirements. As such, the parameters are not intended to establish standards of dental care, which are rigid and inflexible, and represent what must be done; nor are they guidelines which are less rigid, but represent what should be done; nor are they intended to undermine or restrict the dentist’s exercise of professional judgment. In this context, considerable thought was given to the use of the verbs "may," "should" and "must." The verb "may" clearly allows the practitioner to decide whether to act.
The verb "should" indicates a degree of preference and differs in meaning from "must" or "shall" (which require the practitioner to act).
Throughout the parameter document, "dentist" refers to the patient’s attending dentist. Additionally, elements of the parameters concerned with patient consent refer to the patient’s parent, guardian or other responsible party, when the patient is a minor or is incompetent.
The Association intends to continually develop, revise and maintain parameters, in order to include all dental conditions and to accommodate advances in dental technology and science.
Adopted 1994, Revised 1997
The key element in the design of this set of parameters for partially edentulous arch(es) is the professional judgment of the attending dentist, for a specific patient, at a specific time.
The patient’s chief complaint, concerns and expectations should be considered by the dentist.
The dental and medical histories should be considered by the dentist in identifying medications and predisposing conditions that may affect the prognosis, progression, and management of patients with partial edentulism.
Following oral evaluation of the patient (see limited, comprehensive, periodic, detailed and extensive evaluation parameters) and consideration of the patient’s needs, the dentist should provide the patient with information about partially edentulous arch(es) prior to obtaining consent for treatment.
Medications should be prescribed, modified and/or administered for dental patients whose known conditions would affect or be affected by dental treatment provided without the medication or its modification. The dentist should consult with the prescribing health care professional(s) before modifying medications being taken by the patient for known conditions. (See: ADA Statement on Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Prevention of Bacterial Endocarditis: A Statement for the Dental Profession (PDF), and A-Z Topic: Antibiotic Prophylaxis.)
When the dentist considers it necessary, (an)other health care professional(s) should be consulted to acquire additional information.
Following evaluation, treatment priority should be given to the management of pain, infection, traumatic injuries or other emergency conditions.
The behavioral, psychological, anatomical, developmental and physiological limitations of the patient should be considered by the dentist in developing the treatment plan.
The dentist should attempt to manage the patient’s pain, anxiety and behavior during treatment to facilitate safety, efficiency and patient cooperation. (See: ADA Policy Statement: The Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists and Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists.)
The dentist may counsel the patient concerning the potential effects of the patient’s health condition, medication use and behaviors on his or her oral health.
The dentist should refer the patient to (an)other health professional(s) when the dentist determines that it is in the best interests of the patient.
Relevant and appropriate information about the patient and any coordinated treatment should be communicated and coordinated between the referring dentist and the health professional(s) accepting the referral.
The dentist should recommend treatment; present treatment options, if any; and discuss the probable benefits associated with treatment, and the probable consequences of no treatment.
The patient should be informed that the success of treatment is often dependent upon his or her adaptability to, and acceptance and tolerance of the prosthesis.
Any treatment performed should be with the concurrence of the patient and the dentist. If the patient insists upon treatment not considered by the dentist to be beneficial for the patient, the dentist may decline to provide treatment. If the patient insists upon treatment considered by the dentist to be harmful to the patient, the dentist should decline to provide treatment.
The dentist should emphasize the prevention and early detection of oral diseases through patient education in preventive oral health practices, which may include oral hygiene instructions.
After consideration of the individual circumstances, the dentist should determine if the missing tooth (teeth) should be replaced.
Additional diagnostic procedures relevant to the patient’s partially edentulous arch(es) may be performed and used by the dentist in developing a treatment plan.
The presence, prognosis, stability, positions and treatment implications of any teeth, implants or prostheses in the opposing arch should be considered by the dentist in developing and implementing a treatment plan.
The dentist should consider the characteristics and requirements of each patient in selecting material(s) and treatment(s).
Factors affecting the patient’s speech, function, and orofacial aesthetics should be considered by the dentist in developing a treatment plan.
Tooth, implant and/or tissue supported prosthetic options should be considered by the dentist in developing a treatment plan.
Fixed prosthesis(es), removable prosthesis(es) or a combination of these prosthetic options should be considered by the dentist in developing a treatment plan.
Soft and hard tissue characteristics and morphology, ridge relationships, occlusion and occlusal forces, aesthetics, and parafunctional habits should be considered by the dentist in the design of the prosthesis(es).
Restorative implications, endodontic status, tooth position and periodontal prognosis should be considered by the dentist in developing a treatment plan.
Craniofacial, musculoskeletal relationships, including the clinically apparent status of the temporomandibular joints, should be considered by the dentist in developing a treatment plan.
The dentist should consider the compatibility of the selected treatment with the surrounding oral tissues and should provide an environment accessible for maintenance.
Alteration of tooth morphology and/or occlusal plane, orthodontic repositioning, and placement, replacement or modification of restorations may be performed by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Teeth with carious lesions should be monitored or treated by the dentist.
Endodontic therapy may be performed by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Teeth may be removed by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Occlusal adjustments, guards and/or splinting may be used by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Periodontal surgical procedures may be performed by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Pre-prosthetic surgical procedures to alter hard and soft tissue morphology may be performed by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures may be performed by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Tissue conditioners may be used by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Transitional or provisional prostheses may be utilized by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
The dentist should communicate to the dental laboratory technician necessary information and authorization for fabrication of the prosthesis(es). Although the fabrication may be delegated, the dentist is responsible for the accuracy of the prosthesis(es).
Removable prostheses may be repaired, modified, relined, rebased or replaced, as determined by the dentist.
Fixed prostheses may be repaired, modified or replaced, as determined by the dentist.
The patient should be instructed by the dentist in the use and care of the prosthesis. The patient should be informed that the success of treatment is often dependent upon his or her compliance with the instructions. Lack of compliance should be recorded.
The patient should be informed by the dentist that the prosthesis(es) may need future replacement, rebasing and/or relining.
The dentist should inform the patient that he or she should participate in a prescribed program of continuing care to allow the dentist to evaluate the prosthesis(es) and the condition of the oral cavity.
The dentist should determine the frequency and type of preventive treatment based on the patient’s risk factors or presence of oral disease.
Documentation of treatment provided, counseling and recommended preventive measures, as well as consultations with and referrals to other health care professionals, should be included in the patient’s dental record.