Gingival Recession (Marginal Tissue Recession)
(Adopted 1995, Revised 1997)
The key element in the design of this set of parameters for loss of attachment with gingival recession is the professional judgment of the attending dentist, for a specific patient, at a specific time.
The patient's chief complaint, concerns and expectations should be considered by the dentist.
Following oral evaluation (see limited, comprehensive, periodic, detailed and extensive evaluation parameters) and consideration of the patient's needs, the dentist should provide the patient with information about gingival recession prior to obtaining consent for further treatment. (See: Periodontal Screening and Recording® (PSR®): An Early Detection System Q & A.)
The dental and medical histories should be considered by the dentist to identify medications and predisposing conditions that may affect the prognosis, progression and management of gingival recession.
Following oral evaluation, treatment priority should be given to the management of pain, infection, traumatic injuries or other emergency conditions.
Factors affecting the patient's speech, function and orofacial aesthetics should be considered by the dentist in developing a treatment plan.
In developing a treatment plan, the dentist should consider that the etiology of gingival recession can be multifactorial.
The relationship of the mucogingival junction to the marginal tissue, and the probing depth should be noted and considered in developing a treatment plan.
The behavioral, psychological, anatomical, developmental and physiological limitations of the patient should be considered by the dentist in developing the treatment plan.
Restorative implications, carious lesions, pulpal/endodontic status, tooth position, and periodontal status and prognosis should be considered in developing a treatment plan.
When the dentist considers it necessary, (an)other health professional(s) should be consulted to acquire additional information.
After consideration of the individual circumstances, the dentist should decide whether the gingival recession should be monitored or treated.
The dentist should recommend treatment; present treatment options, if any; and discuss the probable benefits, prognosis, limitations and risks associated with treatment, and the probable consequences of no treatment.
The dentist should refer the patient to (an) other health professional(s) when the dentist determines that it is in the best interest of the patient.
Relevant and appropriate information about the patient and any coordinated treatment should be communicated and coordinated between the referring dentist and the health professional(s) accepting the referral.
Medications should be prescribed, modified and/or administered for dental patients whose known conditions would affect or be affected by dental treatment provided without the medication or its modification. The dentist should consult with the prescribing health care professional(s) before modifying medications being taken by the patient for known conditions. (See: ADA Statement on Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Prevention of Bacterial Endocarditis: A Statement for the Dental Profession (PDF), and A-Z Topic: Antibiotic Prophylaxis.)
When recommending treatment, the dentist should recognize that gingival recession can be generalized or site-specific, progressive and predisposing to other conditions.
The dentist may counsel the patient concerning the potential effects of the patient's health condition, medication use, and behaviors and/or habits on his or her oral health. (See: Statement on Intraoral/Perioral Piercing.)
Any treatment performed should be with the concurrence of the patient and the dentist. If the patient insists upon treatment not considered by the dentist to be beneficial for the patient, the dentist may decline to provide treatment. If the patient insists upon treatment considered by the dentist to be harmful to the patient, the dentist should decline to provide treatment.
The dentist should emphasize the prevention and early detection of oral diseases through patient education in preventive oral health practices.
The dentist should determine the frequency and type of preventive treatment, based on the patient's risk factors or presence of oral disease.
The dentist should consider the characteristics and requirements of each patient in selecting material(s) and treatment(s).
The dentist should consider the compatibility of the selected treatment with the surrounding oral tissues and should provide an environment accessible for maintenance.
The dentist should attempt to manage the patient's pain, anxiety and behavior during treatment to facilitate safety, efficiency and patient cooperation. (See: ADA Policy Statement: The Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists and Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists.)
Local etiologic factors should be removed.
Chemotherapeutic agents may be used by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Alteration of tooth morphology and/or position; placement of restorations; modification or replacement of restorations; and treatment of carious lesions may be performed by the dentist to facilitate treatment or reduce symptoms.
The dentist may modify occluding, articulating, adjacent or approximating teeth to facilitate treatment.
Transitional or provisional restorations may be utilized by the dentist to facilitate treatment.
Teeth may be removed, as determined by the dentist. When appropriate, the patient should be informed of the necessity to replace any removed teeth.
Occlusal guards and/or splinting may be used by the dentist.
Root planing may be performed.
Regenerative, recontouring and/or augmentation procedures may be performed by the dentist.
Root resection and endodontic treatment may be performed by the dentist.
The dentist should inform the patient that he or she should participate in a prescribed program of continuing care to allow the dentist to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment provided and the status of the periodontium.
The patient should be informed that the success of the treatment is often dependent upon patient compliance with home care instructions and recommendations for behavioral modifications. Lack of compliance should be recorded.
Documentation of treatment provided, counseling and recommended preventive measures, as well as consultations with and referrals to other health care professionals should be included in the patient's dental record.