Dental practice research

ADA Health Policy Institute data reveal trends in dental practice structure, dentist income and reimbursement.
The ADA's Health Policy Institute provides dental industry reporting and data trends such as practice structure, dentist salary and reimbursement.
Shifting practice modalities

The dental workforce is gravitating more and more toward larger practices and DSOs. See how the results break down by dentist career stage.

Top publications

Discover the number of jobs and spending generated by dental offices in your state.
Research and data
Research and data
See how practice ownership differs by dentist age and gender.
Explore HPI’s latest data on dentist earnings, practice billings and expenses, and busyness.
Research and data
Research and data
Journal articles

Dental practice FAQs

What is a dentist’s average net income?

According to the Survey of Dental Practice, the average net income for dentists in private practice in 2023 was $218,710 for general dentists and $345,860 for specialists. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates the average annual income for general dentists is $191,750.

Sources: Income, Gross Billings, Expenses, and Characteristics (XLSX) (Survey of Dental Practice report)

What are a dentist’s average annual gross billings?

The average gross billings per dentist in private practice in 2023 was $864,560 for general practitioners and $1,155,170 for specialists.

Source: Income, Gross Billings, Expenses, and Characteristics (XLSX) (Survey of Dental Practice report).

Does the ADA have information on dentist income by state and city?

No. The Survey of Dental Practice only provides information on a national level. For state and metropolitan-level dentist income data, visit the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

For state and metropolitan-level dentist income data, visit the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

What is the average salary for dental school faculty?

The ADA does not collect this information. A suggested source is the American Dental Education Association.

Does the ADA have income information for dentists during their first year?

No. Due to sampling at the national level, the number of dental school graduates each year is generally too small to report reliable numbers.

What is the salary for a recent dental school graduate?
Based on responses from the 2023 Survey of Dental Practice, the estimated median annual net income for new general practitioners in private practice is $170,000, limited to dentists with dental school graduation years 2018-2022. Among this group of dentists, one-fourth earned less than $125,000 and one-fourth earned more than $250,000 annually.

Source: 2023 Survey of Dental Practice. Note: Due to a low number of responses, these estimates should be used with caution.
How many dentists are practice owners?

As of 2023, less than three-fourths of U.S. dentists (72.5%) are private practice owners, down from 84.7% in 2005. Practice ownership is down among various dentist age and gender groups.

Source: Practice ownership among dentists continues to decline (HPI Infographic).

How many dentists are in dental support organizations (DSOs)?

As of 2022, more than one in ten dentists (13%) in the U.S. are affiliated with a dental support organization.

Source: Distribution of Dentists According to Size of Dental Practice and Affiliation with a Dental Support Organization (DSO) (XLSX) (Data Report)

How many dental practice establishments (of any size) are there in the U.S.?

The latest data indicate that there are 135,333 dental practice establishments in the U.S.

 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns.

How much do dental hygienists and dental assistants in the U.S. earn?

The national median hourly wage of dental hygienists is $39.14. For dental assistants, the national median hourly wage is $21.55. Wages vary by state.

SourceDental workforce wages and job counts dashboard in Tableau.